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Correct Operations for Gas Appliance
1. Gas appliance should be placed on non-flammable material. Do not allow flammable material in proximity of gas appliance.

2. Before using gas appliance, check if the air around appliance smells any gas, and make sure there is no gas leakage.
3. Keep good ventilation when using gas appliance, but be careful not to let the air blows off flame.
4. When using auto ignition gas appliance, if the appliance fails to light up after several ignition attempt, then wait shortly and let unburned gas dilutes away before trying another ignition.
5. Do not leave gas appliance running unattended. When walking away, turn off gas.
6. Do not install gas water heater in enclosed bath room or poorly ventilated indoor area.
7. Clean gas appliance regularly to avoid incomplete burn.
8. Use air regulator on gas range to adjust the color of the flame until it turns blue. Red flame and floating flame are both undesirable.
9. Heat efficiency is maximized when the flame color is normal and the tip of the flame comes right to the bottom of cooking pan.
10. Flat-bottom pan saves more gas than dome-shape wok.
11. Do not connect more than one gas appliance to one gas regulator.
12. When testing for gas leakage, use soap bubble and never use fire.
13. Check for tightening , aging, cracking, and insect biting on rubber pipe that connects to gas appliance.
14. If gas leakage occurs, gently open windows and doors to allow gas floats away, and do not turn on any electric appliance or fan.
15. In case of CO Intoxication, move victim to well ventilated area and seek for emergency medical rescue.

Keep good ventilation when using gas appliance to avoid Hyproxia accident
  Gas appliance advances rapidly in recent years, and residential houses we live in are now better equipped, such as air-tight aluminum frame windows and doors, which keep  the air of comfortable temperature vented from air conditioner indoor from leaking out. Doors, windows, and roof top  of aged old houses have many gaps, and air indoor and outdoor may naturally exchange  as frequently as 5 to 10 times per hour. Heating energy we used in the old days was low combustion ratio charcoal, and therefore there was no problem with air ventilation. However, air exchange ratio in air-tight modern houses is as low as 0.5 to 2 times. In the same time, because of higher living standard, gas appliances we use indoor  today have more variety and quantity, and consume more volume of gas. Natural air exchange will definitely not able to supply sufficient volume of oxygen from fresh air for gas burning. Low oxygen ratio in air will lead to incomplete burn, which will affect human body with syndrome in the Table 1 and 2 below. For a safe, healthy, and comfortable living, please keep good indoor ventilation if gas energy is used in your household.
Table 1: Symptoms of CO Intoxication at Different levels of Carbon Monoxide Ratio in Air:
CO Ratio in Air (%) Symptoms According to Duration of Inhalation
0.02 2~3hours:  minor headache
0.04 1~2 hours: minor headache. 2.5~3.5 hours: headache in the back of head
0.08 45 minutes: headache, dizziness, and vomit. 2 hours: confusion
0.16 20 minutes: headache and dizziness, vomit. 2 hours: death
0.32 5~10 minutes: headache, and vomit. 30 minutes: death.
0.64 1~2 minutes: headache and dizziness. 10~15 minutes: death.
1.28 1~3minutes: death.

Why Need Air Ventilation?
  Human life depends on breathing air, which consists of 21% of oxygen and 79% of nitrogen. If fresh air is not supplied in enclosed space, oxygen will be slowly consumed and depleted, and human will eventually die in suffocation. Air with oxygen ratio below 16% will cause function disorder in human body, and when below 10%, coma, stop breathing, and heart ceases beating.
  Gas appliance, such as table top heater, air heater, and water heater, like human being, consumes oxygen and releases carbon monoxide into air when burning, which converts to heat for our use. However, if air is lack of oxygen, then gas will burn incompletely and produce dangerous carbon monoxide in a very short period of time.
  To allow gas to burn completely when using gas appliance, sufficient supply of air is required. That is, provide fresh air for gas appliance is absolutely needed.
Table 2: Intoxication at different Carbon Monoxide Hemoglobin Ratios in Blood:
Carbon Monoxide Hemoglobin Ratio in Blood (%) Symptoms
Static Status In Motion
0~10 No symptom No symptom
10~20 No symptom Minor headache
20~30 Causes headache Dizziness and shortness of breath
30~40 Headache, racing heart, vomit, and shortness of breath Dizziness, shortness of breath, and  spasticity
40~50 Vision, hearing, and consciousness disorders Fatigue, spasticity, and vomit
50~60 Sudden faint Increased pulse ratio and  sudden faint
60~70 Heart failure, faint Dying
70~80 Weak pulse and weak breath Breath Difficulty and death

Fatal Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  Carbon monoxide has very strong capability to bind with hemoglobin (Hb) in human blood; 200 ~ 300 times stronger than oxygen. Despite small amount in air, carbon monoxide will bind with hemoglobin immediately. If hemoglobin is already bonded with oxygen , then carbon monoxide will replace oxygen and bind with hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin is supposed to carry oxygen contained in the air breathed into lung and transport oxygen allover to human body through blood vein system. If hemoglobin is bonded with carbon monoxide instead of oxygen, then what the blood that oxygen-dependent human body receives contains is full of CO hemoglobin and very few oxy hemoglobin. Despite respiration is active, human will still die in suffocation due to hyproxia. Noticeably, when oxygen ratio in blood decreases, brain cells are injured first. Even though life is saved, brain functions will still be difficult to recover, and human will suffer from many aftereffects.
  That is why supply of fresh air is required wherever people are. Additionally, gas appliance that consume large volume of gas, such as gas range, water heater, or whatever gas-burning appliance, will all need large volume of fresh air. In other words, residential houses in which people live and gas appliance is installed shall need to take fresh air in and exhaust dirty air frequently.
  However, ceilings, doors, and windows of which most recently built houses and apartment installed are all seamless. People usually keep doors and windows closed tightly in winter to keep out the cold winds. In this situation, oxygen is consumed quickly and carbon monoxide in produced by people's respiration and gas burning. The cycle of insufficient oxygen level → incomplete burn → carbon monoxide is consequently produced. To avoid fatal accident, ventilation must be maintained. No matter how superior the functions of gas appliance are and no matter how carefully these gas appliance are inspected, if ventilation is not maintained, fatal accident shall bound to happen.

How to Maintain Ventilation?
  For regular residential unit, ventilating 3 ~ 6 times of indoor space volume per hour is required. Because steel reinforced concrete apartments can only ventilate 0.5 ~ 2 times per hour, therefore, please pay attention to methods of effective ventilation.
(1) Install Air Vents
  Install an air intake vent near floor on one side of house, and an air exhaust vent near ceiling on the opposite wall. This configuration produces excellent ventilation effect. Air taken in from lower vent will rise naturally after being heated indoor. After floating through indoor space, air will be exhausted outdoor through the upper vent on the opposite wall. If a door is installed on one side, then adding a blind window on the lower part of the door will be an alternative.
If installing vents on two opposite sides is not possible and installing two vents on the same wall is the only option, then maximize top-down distance between the two vents. If top-down configuration is not possible, then install a larger window.
(2) Remember to Open Up Windows
  Open up a small window or leave a narrow opening on window when using gas appliance. As long as curtain is drawn on, warm air will stay indoor while air is still ventilated. Opening up windows on two opposite walls will do a great job of ventilation.
  Open up windows wide once per every hour to allow fresh air comes into indoor. It will be even better if opening up windows on south and north or east and west sides.
(3) If Water Heater is Installed Indoor, then Ventilation Appliance must be installed and windows Must be Opened for Ventilation
  All intoxication accident cases were caused by water heaters that were installed in bath room or enclosed corridor or kitchen. Water heater running for long time at low heat or in poorly ventilated area will still cause fast carbon monoxide production and unburned gas due to distinguished flame. Any of these is very dangerous.

How to Choose When Shopping for Gas Appliance:

(1) Ask if there is any after-purchase service when shopping for gas appliance.
(2)Check if Qualified Inspection Sticker from Bureau of Standard, Metrology, and Inspection and Insured Product Sticker from Taiwan Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association are pasted on the main unit of gas appliance
(3)Products with the Association's insurance stickers pasted on are entitled for three major protections:
 1.The product has qualified inspections administered by Bureau of Standard, Metrology, and Inspection of Ministry of Economic Affairs
 2.The product has qualified random check administered by Taiwan Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association
 3.This product has been insured with liability insurance for public accidents.



Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association of Taiwan
Addresss:No.90, Ln., 1434, Chunri Rd., Taoyuan Dist., Taoyuan City, Taoyuan County,Taiwan, R.O.C. TEL: 03-3550251  FAX: 03-3265769
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